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1. Manujassa pamattacàrino Þ
taõhà vaóóhati màluvà viya
So plavati huràhura§ Þ
phalam iccha§'va vanasmi§ vànaro. 334.
2. Ya§ esà sahatã jammã Þ
taõhà loke visattikà
Sokà tassa pavaóóhanti Þ
abhivaññha§'va bãraõa§. 335.
3. Yo c'eta§ sahatã jammi§ Þ
taõha§ loke duraccaya§
Sokà tamhà papatanti Þ
udabindu'va pokkharà. 336.
4. Ta§ vo vadàmi bhadda§ vo Þ
yàvant' ettha samàgatà
Taõhàya måla§ khanatha Þ
usãrattho' va bãraõa§
Mà vo naëa§' va soto' va Þ
màro bha¤ji punappuna§. 337.
CRAVING ARISES IN THE NEGLIGENT
1. The craving1 of the person addicted to careless living grows like a creeper. He jumps from life to life like a fruit-loving monkey in the forest. 334.
THOSE WHO CRAVE MULTIPLY THEIR SORROWS
2. Whomsoever in this world this base clinging thirst overcomes, his sorrows flourish like well-watered bãraõa grass. 335.
THERE IS NO SORROW TO THE CRAVING-FREE
3. Whoso in the world overcomes this base unruly craving, from him sorrows fall away like water-drops from a lotus-leaf. 336.
CUT OFF CRAVING FROM THE ROOT
4. This I say to you: Good luck to you all who have assembled here! Dig up the root of craving like one in quest of bãraõa's sweet root. Let not Màra2 crush you again and again as a flood (crushes) a reed. 337.
The Buddha uttered these verses with reference to an insolent monk, who though well-versed in the Dhamma, was full of craving and through pride used to disparage others.
5. Yathà' pi måle anupaddave daëhe Þ
chinno' pi rukkho punareva råhati
Evam pi taõhànusaye anåhate Þ
nibbattatã dukkham ida§ punappuna§. 338.
6. Yassa chatti§satã sotà Þ
Vàhà vahanti duddiññhi§ Þ
saïkappà ràganissità. 339.
7. Savanti sabbadhã sotà Þ
latà ubbhijja tiññhati
Ta¤ ca disvà lata§ jàta§ Þ
måla§ pa¤¤àya chindatha. 340.
8. Saritàni sinehitàni ca Þ
somanassàni bhavanti jantuno
Te sàtasità sukhesino Þ
te ve jàtijaråpagà narà. 341.
9. Tasiõàya purakkhatà pajà Þ
parisappanti saso' va bàdhito
dukkham upenti punappuna§ ciràya. 342.
10. Tasiõàya purakkhatà pajà Þ
parisappanti saso' va bàdhito
Tasmà tasiõa§ vinodaye Þ
bhikkhu àkaïkhã viràgam attano. 343.
THERE IS SUFFERING AS LONG AS THERE IS CRAVING
5. Just as a tree with roots unharmed and firm, though hewn down, sprouts again, even so while latent craving is not rooted out, this sorrow springs up again and again. 338.
LUSTFUL THOUGHTS ARISE IN HIM WHO HAS CRAVING
6. If in anyone the thirty-six streams (of craving3) that rush towards pleasurable thoughts 4 are strong, such a deluded person, torrential thoughts of lust carry off. 339.
CUT OFF CRAVING WITH WISDOM
7. The streams (craving) flow everywhere. The creeper (craving) sprouts5 and stands. 6 Seeing the creeper that has sprung up, with wisdom cut off root. 340.
ATTACHMENT TO SENSUAL PLEASURES LEAD TO BIRTH AND DECAY
8. In beings there arise pleasures that rush (towards sense-objects) and (such beings) are steeped in craving. Bent on happiness, they seek happiness. Verily, such men come to birth and decay. 341.
FETTERED BY CRAVING THEY COME TO GRIEF
9. Folk enwrapt in craving are terrified like a captive hare. Held fast by fetters and bonds,7 for long they come to sorrow again and again. 342.
HE WHO DESIRES PASSIONLESSNESS SHOULD DISCARD CRAVING
10. Folk, enwrapt in craving, are terrified like a captive hare. Therefore a bhikkhu who wishes his own passionlessness (Nibbàna) should discard craving. 343.
While the Buddha was passing along a street he saw a young sow. Relating how in some of her past births she had enjoyed high estate and in others suffered degradation, He spoke on the manifold evil consequences of craving.
11. Yo nibbanatho vanàdhimutto Þ
vanamutto vanam eva dhàvati
Ta§ puggalam etha passatha Þ
mutto bandhanam eva dhàvati. 344.
IT IS FOOLISH TO RETURN TO WORLDLY LIFE
11. Whoever with no desire (for the household) finds pleasure in the forest (of asceticism) and though freed from desire (for the household), (yet) runs back to that very home. Come, behold that man! Freed, he runs back into that very bondage.8 344.
This verse was uttered by the Buddha about a young man who, through faith, entered the Order, but later, tempted by sensual pleasures, returned to the household life.
12. Na ta§ daëha§ bandhanam àhu dhãrà Þ
yadàyasa§ dàruja§ babbaja¤ ca
Sàrattarattà maõikuõóalesu Þ
puttesu dàresu ca yà apekhà 345.
13. Eta§ daëha§ bandhanam àhu dhãrà Þ
ohàrina§ sithila§ duppamu¤ca§
Etam pi chetvàna paribbajanti
ATTACHMENT TO WORLDLY OBJECTS IS FAR STRONGER THAN IRON CHAINS
12. That which is made of iron, wood or hemp, is not a strong bond, say the wise; the longing for jewels, ornaments, children, and wives is a far greater attachment. 345.
RENOUNCE SENSUAL PLEASURES
13. That bond is strong, say the wise. It hurls down, is supple, and is hard to loosen. This too the wise cut off, and leave the world, with no longing, renouncing sensual pleasures. 346.
Some monks passing a prison house observed the criminals bound by chains. They inquired of the Buddha whether there were other bonds stronger than what they had seen. The Buddha replied that the bond of craving was a thousand times stronger.
14. Ye ràgarattànupatanti sota§ Þ
saya§ kata§ makkañako' va jàla§
Etam pi chetvàna vajanti dhãrà Þ
anapekkhino sabbadukkha§ pahàya. 347.
THE LUSTFUL ARE CAUGHT IN THEIR OWN WEB
14. Those who are infatuated with lust fall back into the stream as (does) a spider into the web spun by itself. This too the wise cut off and wander, with no longing, released from all sorrow. 347.
A certain queen was infatuated with her own beauty. The Buddha contrived a means to create in her disgust for external beauty. Consequently she realized the transitoriness of life. In admonition the Buddha uttered this verse.
15. Mu¤ca pure mu¤ca pacchato Þ
majjhe mu¤ca bhavassa pàragå
Sabbattha vimuttamànaso Þ
na puna jàtijara§ upehisi. 348.
RELEASE YOUR MIND
15. Let go the past. Let go the future. Let go the present10 (front, back and middle). Crossing to the farther shore of existence, with mind released from everything, do not again undergo birth and decay. 348.
A youth fell in love with a female acrobat and, becoming an acrobat himself, wandered from place to place. One day the Buddha met him and uttered this verse in admonition.
16. Vitakkapamathitassa jantuno Þ
Bhiyyo taõhà pavaóóhati Þ
esa kho daëha§ karoti bandhana§. 349.
17. Vitakkåpasame ca yo rato Þ
asubha§ bhàvayati sadà sato
Esa kho vyantikàhiti Þ
esa checchati màrabandhana§. 350.
CRAVING GROWS IN THE PASSIONATE
16. For the person who is perturbed by (evil) thoughts, who is exceedingly lustful, who contemplates pleasant things, craving increases more and more. Surely, he makes the bond (of Màra) stronger. 349.
THE MINDFUL END CRAVING
17. He who delights in subduing (evil) thoughts, who meditates on "the loathesomeness"11 (of the body) who is ever mindful - it is he who will make an end (of craving). He will sever Màra's bond. 350.
A young monk was tempted by a woman who had fallen in love with him. As he was chafing under the Holy Life he was taken to the Buddha. He then related the cause of his discontent. The Buddha related an incident from a previous life of the young monk to show how he had been betrayed by that particular woman earlier too, and He uttered these verse.
18. Niññhaïgato asantàsã Þ
Acchindi bhavasallàni Þ
antimo'ya§ samussayo. 351.
19. Vãtataõho anàdàno Þ
Akkharàna§ sannipàta§ Þ
ja¤¤à pubbaparàni ca
Sa ve antimasàrãro Þ
mahàpa¤¤o mahàpuriso'ti vuccati. 352.
HE WHO IS FREE FROM CRAVING IS IN HIS FINAL LIFE
18. He who has reached the goal, is fearless, is without craving, is passionless, has cut off the thorns of life. This is his final body. 351.
THE NON-ATTACHED PERSON IS A GREAT SAGE
19. He who is without craving and grasping, who is skilled in etymology and terms,12 who knows the grouping of letters and their sequence - it is he who is called the bearer of the final body, one of profound wisdom, a great man. 352.
A young novice who had attained Arahantship lay asleep in front of the Buddha's Perfumed Chamber. Màra came to frighten him. The Buddha, perceiving him, declared that he who had destroyed craving was fearless.
20. Sabbàbhibhå sabbavidå' ham asmi Þ
sabbesu dhammesu anåpalitto
Sabba¤jaho taõhakkhaye vimutto Þ
saya§ abhi¤¤àya kam uddiseyya§. 353.
THE OMNISCIENT ONE HAS NO TEACHER
20. All have I overcome, all do I know. From all am I detached. All have I renounced. Wholly absorbed am I in "the destruction of craving".13 Having comprehended all by myself, whom shall I call my teacher? 353.
Upaka, a wandering ascetic, pleased with the Buddha's countenance, questioned Him about His teacher. The Buddha replied that He has no teacher.
21. Sabbadàna§ dhammadàna§ jinàti Þ
sabba§ rasa§ dhammaraso jinàti
Sabba§ rati§ dhammaratã jinàti Þ
taõhakkhayo sabbadukkha§ jinàti. 354.
THE GIFT OF TRUTH EXCELS ALL OTHER GIFTS
21. The gift of Truth excels all (other) gifts. The flavour of Truth excels all (other) flavours. The pleasure in Truth excels all (other) pleasures. He who has destroyed craving overcomes all sorrow. 354.
In reply to four questions raised by Sakka King of the gods, the Buddha uttered this verse.
22. Hananti bhogà dummedha§ Þ
no ve pàragavesino
Bhogataõhàya dummedho Þ
hanti a¤¤e' va attanà. 355.
RICHES RUIN THE IGNORANT
22. Riches ruin the foolish, but not those in quest of the Beyond (Nibbàna). Through craving for riches the ignorant man ruins himself as (if he were ruining) others. 355.
A childless treasurer died leaving all his wealth. The King ordered all his wealth to be removed to the Royal Treasury and went to see the Buddha. He related what had happened and remarked that although the Buddha dwelt close by the treasurer had not given any alms to Him. Thereupon the Buddha uttered this verse.
23. Tiõadosàni khettàni Þ
ràgadosà aya§ pajà
Tasmà hi vãtaràgesu Þ
dinna§ hoti mahapphala§. 356.
24. Tiõadosàni khettàni Þ
dosadosà aya§ pajà
Tasmà hi vãtadosesu Þ
dinna§ hoti mahapphala§. 357.
25. Tiõadosàni khettàni Þ
mohadosà aya§ pajà
Tasmà hi vãtamohesu Þ
dinna§ hoti mahapphala§. 358.
26. Tiõadosàni khettàni Þ
icchàdosà aya§ pajà
Tasmà hi vigaticchesu Þ
dinna§ hoti mahapphala§. 359.
LUST IS THE BLEMISH OF MANKIND
23. Weeds are the bane of fields, lust is the bane of mankind. Hence what is given to those lustless yields abundant fruit. 356.
HATRED IS THE BLEMISH OF MANKIND
24. Weeds are the bane of fields, hatred is the bane of mankind. Hence what is given to those rid of hatred yields abundant fruit. 357.
DELUSION IS THE BLEMISH OF MANKIND
25. Weeds are the bane of fields, delusion is the bane of mankind. Hence what is given to those rid of delusion yields abundant fruit. 358.
DESIRE IS THE BLEMISH OF MANKIND
26. Weeds are the bane of fields, craving is the bane of mankind. Hence what is given to those rid of craving yields abundant fruit. 359.
Commenting on the merits acquired by those who give to the Pure, the Buddha uttered these verses.
1 Craving is threefold, viz: craving for sensual pleasures (kàmataõhà), craving connected with the notion of eternalism (bhavataõhà), and craving connected with the notion of nihilism (vibhavataõhà).
Craving for personal sense-fields, such as eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind, and for external sense-fields, such as form, sound, scent, taste, contact, and dhammas (mental objects), when viewed in the foregoing three aspects, divides itself into thirty-six varieties. When they are viewed according to past, present, and future they become one hundred and eight.
Bhavataõhàmay also be interpreted as attachment to life or Realms of Form, and vibhavataõhà as attachment to annihilation or Formless Realms.
3 See note on v. 334.
4 Through the six sense-doors.
5 That is, from the six sense-doors.
6 Resting on the six sense-objects.
7 There are five kinds of bonds (saïga) - namely: lust, hatred, delusion, pride, and false views.
8 Here is a pun on the two meanings of vana, forest and desire.
9 Editor's note: The text here actually reads vajanti dhãrà, as in the following verse; but Ven Nàrada translates: `leave the world' which can only refer to paribbajanti as in other editions.
10 That is, attachment to the past, present, and future Aggregates.
11 This is the meditation on the impurities of the body by practising which one can get rid of attachment to the body.
12 Niruttipadakovido - versed in the four kinds of analytical knowledge (pañisambhidà) - namely: meaning (attha), text (dhamma), etymology (nirutti), and understanding (pañibhàna).