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The Bhikkhu Or The Mendicant
1. Cakkhunà sa§varo sàdhu Þ
sàdhu sotena sa§varo
Ghàõena sa§varo sàdhu Þ
sàdhu jivhàya sa§varo. 360.
2. Kàyena sa§varo sàdhu Þ
sàdhu vàcàya sa§varo
Manasà sa§varo sàdhu Þ
sàdhu sabbattha sa§varo
Sabbattha sa§vuto bhikkhu Þ
sabbadukkhà pamuccati. 361.
GUARD THE SENSES
1. Good is restraint in the eye; good is restraint in the ear; good is restraint in the nose; good is restraint in the tongue. 360.
HE WHO GUARDS HIS SENSES IS RELEASED FROM SORROW
2. Good is restraint in deed; good is restraint in speech; good is restraint in mind; good is restraint in everything. The bhikkhu,1 restrained at all points, 2 is freed from sorrow. 361.
Five monks each of whom was guarding one of the senses inquired of the Buddha which sense was the most difficult to restrain. Instead of answering the question directly the Buddha related a story from one of their past births to show that they had come to destruction because their senses were not guarded, and then He uttered these verses.
3. Hatthasa¤¤ato pàdasa¤¤ato Þ
vàcàya sa¤¤ato sa¤¤atuttamo
Ajjhattarato samàhito Þ
eko santusito tam àhu bhikkhu§. 362.
THE FULLY CONTROLLED PERSON IS CALLED A BHIKKHU
3. He who is controlled in hand, in foot, in speech, and in the highest (i.e., the head); he who delights in meditation,3 and is composed; he who is alone, and is contented - him they call a bhikkhu. 362.
A monk killed a flying swan by hitting it in the eye with a stone. The Buddha, advising him, explained the state of a bhikkhu.
4. Yo mukhasa¤¤ato bhikkhu Þ
Attha§ dhamma¤ ca dãpeti Þ
madhura§ tassa bhàsita§. 363.
SWEET IS HIS SPEECH WHO CONTROLS HIS TONGUE
4. The bhikkhu who is controlled in tongue, who speaks wisely,4 who is not puffed up, who explains the meaning and the text - sweet, indeed, is his speech. 363.
The Buddha uttered this verse with reference to a monk who reviled the two Chief Disciples.
5. Dhammàràmo dhammarato Þ
Dhamma§ anussara§ bhikkhu Þ
saddhammà na parihàyati. 364.
HE WHO FINDS PLEASURE IN THE DHAMMA DOES NOT FALL
5. That bhikkhu who dwells in the Dhamma, who delights in the Dhamma, who meditates on the Dhamma, who well remembers the Dhamma, does not fall away from the sublime Dhamma. 364.
A monk, named Dhammàràma, knowing that the Buddha would soon pass away, refrained from mingling with the other monks and instead used to meditate on the Dhamma with the object of attaining Arahantship. Misconstruing his attitude, the monks reported the matter to the Buddha. When the monk explained his object in doing what he did, the Buddha applauded him and uttered this verse.
6. Salàbha§ nƒtima¤¤eyya Þ
n'ƒ¤¤esa§ pihaya§ care
A¤¤esa§ pihaya§ bhikkhu Þ
samàdhi§ n'ƒdhigacchati. 365.
7. Appalàbho' pi ce bhikkhu Þ
Ta§ ve devà pasa§santi Þ
suddhƒjãvi§ atandita§. 366.
6. Let him not despise what he has received, nor should he live envying (the gains of) others. The bhikkhu who envies (the gains of) others does not attain concentration.5 365.
DESPISE NOT WHAT ONE GETS
7. Though receiving but little, if a bhikkhu does not despise his own gains, even the gods praise such a one who is pure in livelihood and is not slothful. 366.
A monk, accepting an invitation from a monk who was a follower of the Venerable Devadatta, spent a few days enjoying his hospitality. When he returned to the monastery the other monks mentioned the matter to the Buddha. Thereupon the Buddha uttered these verses in admonition to him and other monks.
8. Sabbaso nàmaråpasmi§ Þ
yassa natthi mamàyita§
Asatà ca na socati Þ
sa ve bhikkhå' ti vuccati. 367.
HE IS A BHIKKHU WHO HAS NO ATTACHMENT
8. He who has no thought of "l" and "mine" whatever towards mind and body, he who grieves not for that which he has not, he is, indeed, called a bhikkhu. 367.
A devotee offered alms to the Buddha when He stood at his door and wished to know what constituted a bhikkhu. Briefly the Buddha described the attributes of a bhikkhu.
9. Mettàvihàrã yo bhikkhu Þ
Adhigacche pada§ santa§ Þ
saïkhàråpasama§ sukha§. 368.
10. Si¤ca bhikkhu ima§ nàva§ Þ
sittà te lahum essati
Chetvà ràga§ ca dosa¤ ca Þ
tato nibbànam ehisi. 369.
11. Pa¤ca chinde pa¤ca jahe Þ
pa¤ca c'uttari bhàvaye
Pa¤ca saïgàtigo bhikkhu Þ
oghatiõõo' ti vuccati. 370.
12. Jhàya bhikkhu mà ca pàmado Þ
mà te kàmaguõe bhamassu citta§
Mà lohaguëa§ gilã pamatto Þ
mà kandi dukkham idan'ti óayhamàno. 371.
13. Natthi jhàna§ apa¤¤assa Þ
pa¤¤à natthi ajhàyato
Yamhi jhàna¤ ca pa¤¤à ca Þ
sa ve nibbànasantike. 372.
14. Su¤¤àgàra§ paviññhassa Þ
Amànusã rati hoti Þ
sammà dhamma§ vipassato. 373.
15. Yato yato sammasati Þ
Labhati pãti pàmojja§ Þ
amata§ ta§ vijànata§. 374.
16. Tatràyam àdi bhavati Þ
idha pa¤¤assa bhikkhuno:
Indriyagutti santuññhã Þ
pàtimokkhe ca sa§varo. 375.
17. Mitte bhajassu kalyàõe Þ
suddh' ƒjãve atandite
Pañisanthàravuty' assa Þ
Tato pàmojjabahulo Þ
dukkhass' anta§ karissasi. 376.
THE BHIKKHU WHO RADIATES LOVING-KINDNESS RADIATES PEACE
9. The bhikkhu who abides in loving-kindness,6 who is pleased with the Buddha's Teaching, attains to that state of peace and happiness, 7 the stilling of conditioned things. 368.
GIVE UP LUST AND HATRED
10. Empty this boat,8 O bhikkhu! Emptied by you it will move swiftly. Cutting off lust and hatred, to Nibbàna you will thereby go. 369.
FLOOD-CROSSER IS ONE WHO HAS GIVEN UP THE FETTERS
11. Five cut off,9 five give up, 10 five further cultivate. 11 The bhikkhu who has gone beyond the five bonds 12 is called a "Flood-Crosser". 370.
12. Meditate, O bhikkhu! Be not heedless. Do not let your mind whirl on sensual pleasures. Do not be careless and swallow a ball of lead. As you burn cry not "This is sorrow". 371.
THERE IS NO WISDOM IN THOSE WHO DO NOT THINK
13. There is no concentration in one who lacks wisdom, nor is there wisdom in him who lacks concentration. In whom are both concentration and wisdom, he, indeed, is in the presence of Nibbàna. 372.
HE WHO IS CALM EXPERIENCES TRANSCENDENTAL JOY
14. The bhikkhu who has retired to a lonely abode, who has calmed his mind, who perceives the doctrine clearly, experiences a joy transcending that of men.13 373.
HE IS HAPPY WHO REFLECTS ON RISE AND FALL
15. Whenever he reflects on the rise and fall of the Aggregates, he experiences joy and happiness. To "those who know" that (reflection14) is Deathless. 374.
A WISE BHIKKHU MUST POSSESS HIS CARDINAL VIRTUES
16. And this becomes the beginning here for a wise bhikkhu: sense-control, contentment, restraint with regard to the Fundamental Code (Pàtimokkha15), association with beneficent and energetic friends whose livelihood is pure. 375.
A BHIKKHU SHOULD BE CORDIAL IN ALL HIS WAYS
17. Let him be cordial in his ways and refined in conduct; filled thereby with joy, he will make an end of ill. 376.
A monk, seated in a specially constructed pavilion was preaching the Dhamma one night to his mother and many others. Some robbers entered her house meanwhile. Their ring-leader shadowed the woman, intending to kill her if she should return home before they had done their fell work. Thrice a servant-maid came and informed her about the robbers, but she sent her away asking her not to disturb her while listening to the Dhamma. The ring-leader was impressed by her devotion. He went up to the robbers and ordered them to restore all the stolen property. Then they all came and asked forgiveness from the devout woman and all became monks. When they were engaged in meditation the Buddha projected an image of Himself before them and in admonition uttered these verses.
18. Vassikà viya pupphàni Þ
Eva§ ràga¤ ca dosa¤ ca Þ
vippamu¤cetha bhikkhavo. 377.
CAST OFF LUST AND HATRED
18. As the jasmine creeper sheds its withered flowers, even so, O bhikkhus, should you totally cast off lust and hatred. 377.
Some monks, observing the falling of some withered jasmine flowers, were stimulated to practise meditation more strenuously. The Buddha, perceiving them, projected an image of Himself before them and uttered this verse.
19. Santakàyo santavàco Þ
Vantalokàmiso bhikkhu Þ
upasanto' ti vuccati. 378.
HE IS PEACEFUL WHO IS FREE FROM ALL WORLDLY THINGS
19. The bhikkhu who is calm in body, calm in speech, calm in mind, who is well-composed, who has spewed out worldly things, is truly called a "peaceful one". 378.
A monk was very calm and quiet and his composed demeanour attracted the attention of the other monks. The Buddha, hearing of his exemplary behaviour, advised the monks to emulate him and uttered this verse.
20. Attanà coday' attàna§ Þ
pañimàse attam attanà
HE WHO GUARDS HIMSELF LIVES HAPPILY
20. By self do you censure yourself. By self do you examine yourself. Self-guarded and mindful, O bhikkhu, you will live happily. 379.
YOU ARE YOUR OWN SAVIOUR
21. Self, indeed, is the protector of self. Self, indeed, is one's refuge. Control, therefore, your own self as a merchant controls a noble steed. 380.
A poor ploughman who had for his only possessions his loin cloth and his plough became a monk. Several times he thought of leaving the robe, but finally, taking for his object of meditation his loin cloth and plough which he had preserved, he attained Arahantship. Commenting on his success, the Buddha uttered these verses.
22. Pàmojjabahulo bhikkhu Þ
Adhigacche pada§ santa§ Þ
saïkhàråpasama§ sukha§. 381.
WITH JOY AND FAITH TRY TO WIN YOUR GOAL
22. Full of joy, full of confidence in the Buddha's Teaching, the bhikkhu will attain the Peaceful State, the stilling of conditioned things, the bliss (supreme). 381.
A monk, fascinated by the personality of the Buddha, used to gaze constantly at Him. The Buddha advised him not to do so and remarked that he who sees the Dhamma sees the Buddha. The frustrated monk attempted to commit suicide by jumping off a rock. The Buddha, perceiving him, projected His image before him. The monk overcame his grief and felt happy. Thereupon the Buddha uttered this verse. The monk meditated and attained Arahantship.
23. Yo have daharo bhikkhu Þ
So ima§ loka§ pabhàseti Þ
abbhà mutto' va candimà. 382.
EVEN A YOUNG MONK, IF DEVOUT, CAN ILLUMINE THE WHOLE WORLD
23. The bhikkhu who, while still young, devotes himself to the Buddha's Teaching, illumines this world like the moon freed from a cloud. 382.
Praising a young novice for his psychic powers, the Buddha uttered this verse.
1 Bhikkhu is exclusively a Buddhist term. "Mendicant monk" may be suggested as the best English equivalent.
2 That is, in all senses, literally, everywhere.
3 Here the Pali term ajjhatta, literally, personal, refers to the subject of meditation.
4 Manta here means wisdom.
5 Samàdhi, both mundane and supramundane concentration.
6 Having developed the third and fourth jhànas (ecstasies) with mettà (loving-kindness) as the object of meditation.
7 That is, Nibbàna.
8 The boat resembles the body, water resembles bad thoughts.
9 They are the five fetters (orambhàgiya sa§yojana) that pertain to this shore - namely: self-illusion (sakkàyadiññhi), doubt (vicikicchà), indulgence in (wrongful) rites and ceremonies (sãlabbataparàmàsa), sense-desire (kàmaràga), and hatred (pañigha).
10 They are the five fetters that pertain to the Farther Shore (uddhambhàgiyasa§yojana), namely: attachment to the Realms of Form (råparàga), attachment to the Formless Realms (aråparàga), conceit (màna), restlessness (uddhacca), and ignorance (avijjà).
11 Namely: confidence (saddhà), mindfulness (sati), effort (viriya), concentration (samàdhi), and wisdom (pa¤¤à). These five factors have to be cultivated if one desires to destroy the fetters.
12 See note under v. 342.
13 Amànusã ratã = the eight Attainments (aññhasamàpatti), the four Råpa Jhànas and the four Aråpa Jhànas.
14 As it leads to Nibbàna.
15 Pàtimokkha which deals with the rules that a bhikkhu is bound to observe.
16 Pañima§setha attanà in some books