1. Jetavana.-A park in Sávatthi, in which was built the Anáthapindikáráma. When the Buddha accepted Anáthapindika's invitation to visit Sávatthi the latter, seeking a suitable place for the Buddha's residence, discovered this park belonging to Jetakumára (MA.i.471 says it was in the south of Sávatthi). When he asked to be allowed to buy it, Jeta's reply was: "Not even if you could cover the whole place with money." Anáthapindika said that he would buy it at that price, and when Jeta answered that he had had no intention of making a bargain, the matter was taken before the Lords of Justice, who decided that if the price mentioned were paid, Anáthapindika had the right of purchase. Anáthapindika had gold brought down in carts and covered Jetavana with pieces laid side by side. (This incident is illustrated in a bas-relief at the Bharhut Tope; see Cunningham - the Stúpa of Bharhut, Pl.lvii., pp.84-6). The money brought in the first journey was found insufficient to cover one small spot near the gateway. So Anáthapindika sent his servants back for more, but Jeta, inspired by Anáthapindika's earnestness, asked to be allowed to give this spot. Anáthapindika agreed and Jeta erected there a gateway, with a room over it. Anáthapindika built in the grounds dwelling rooms, retiring rooms, store rooms and service halls, halls with fireplaces, closets, cloisters, halls for exercise, wells, bathrooms, ponds, open and roofed sheds, etc. (Vin.ii.158f).
It is said (MA.i.50; UdA.56f) that Anáthapindika paid eighteen crores for the purchase of the site, all of which Jeta spent in the construction of the gateway gifted by him. (The gateway was evidently an imposing structure; see J.ii.216).
Jeta gave, besides, many valuable trees for timber. Anáthapindika himself spent fifty-four crores in connection with the purchase of the park and the buildings erected in it.
The ceremony of dedication was one of great splendour. Not only Anáthapindika himself, but his whole family took part: his son with five hundred other youths, his wife with five hundred other noble women, and his daughters Mahá Subhaddá and Cúla Subhaddá with five hundred other maidens. Anáthapindika was attended by five hundred bankers. The festivities in connection with the dedication lasted for nine months (J.i.92ff).
Some of the chief buildings attached to the Jetavana are mentioned in the books by special names, viz., Mahágandhakuti, Kaverimandalamála, Kosambakuti and Candanamála. SNA.ii.403. Other buildings are also mentioned - e.g., the Ambalakotthaka-ásanasálá (J.ii.246). According to Tibetan sources the vihára was built according to a plan sent by the devas of Tusita and contained sixty large halls and sixty small. The Dulva also gives details of the decorative scheme of the vihára (Rockhill: op. cit.48 and n.2).
All these were built by Anáthapindika; there was another large building erected by Pasenadi and called the Salalaghara (DA.ii.407). Over the gateway lived a guardian deity to prevent all evildoers from entering (SA.i.239). Just outside the monastery was a rájayatana-tree, the residence of the god Samiddhisumana (Mhv.i.52f; MT 105; but see DhA.i.41, where the guardian of the gateway is called Sumana).
In the grounds there seems to have been a large pond which came to be called the Jetavanapokkharaní. (AA.i.264; here the Buddha often bathed (J.i.329ff.). Is this the Pubbakotthaka referred to at A.iii.345? But see S.v.220; it was near this pond that Devadatta was swallowed up in Avíci (J.iv.158)).
The grounds themselves were thickly covered with trees, giving the appearance of a wooded grove (arańńa) (Sp.iii.532). On the outskirts of the monastery was a mango-grove (J.iii.137). In front of the gateway was the Bodhi-tree planted by Anáthapindika, which came later to be called the Anandabodhi (q.v.) (J.iv.228f). Not far from the gateway was a cave which became famous as the Kapallapúvapabbhára on account of an incident connected with Macchariya-Kosiya (J.i.348).
Near Jetavana was evidently a monastery of the heretics where Cińcámánaviká spent her nights while hatching her conspiracy against the Buddha. (DhA.iii.179; behind Jetavana was a spot where the Ajivakas practised their austerities (J.i.493). Once the heretics bribed Pasenadi to let them make a rival settlement behind Jetavana, but the Buddha frustrated their plans (J.ii.170)).
There seems to have been a playground just outside Jetavana used by the children of the neighbourhood, who, when thirsty, would go into Jetavana to drink (DhA.iii.492). The high road to Sávatthi passed by the edge of Jetavana, and travellers would enter the park to rest and refresh themselves (J.ii.203, 341; see also vi.70, where two roads are mentioned).
According to the Divyávadána (Dvy.395f), the thúpas of Sáriputta and Moggallána were in the grounds of Jetavana and existed until the time of Asoka. Both Fa Hien (Giles: p.33ff) and Houien Thsang (Beal.ii.7ff) give descriptions of other incidents connected with the Buddha, which took place in the neighbourhood of Jetavana - e.g., the murder of Sundariká, the calumny of Cińcá, Devadatta's attempt to poison the Buddha, etc.
The space covered by the four bedposts of the Buddha's Gandhakuti in Jetavana is one of the four avijahitatthánáni; all Buddhas possess the same, though the size of the actual vihára differs in the case of the various Buddhas. For Vipassí Buddha, the setthi Punabbasumitta built a monastery extending for a whole league, while for Sikhí, the setthi Sirivaddha made one covering three gavutas. The Sangháráma built by Sotthiya for Vessabhú was half a league in extent, while that erected by Accuta for Kakusandha covered only one gávuta. Konagamana's monastery, built by the setthi Ugga, extended for half a gávuta, while Kassapa's built by Sumangala covered sixteen karísas. Anáthapindika's monastery covered a space of eighteen karísas (BuA.2, 47; J.i.94; DA.ii.424).
The Buddha spent nineteen rainy seasons in Jetavana (DhA.i.3; BuA.3; AA.i.314). It is said that after the Migáramátupásáda came into being, the Buddha would dwell alternately in Jetavana and Migáramátupásáda, often spending the day in one and the night in the other (SNA.i.336).
According to a description given by Fa Hien (Giles, pp.31, 33), the vihára was originally in seven sections (storeys?) and was filled with all kinds of offerings, embroidered banners, canopies, etc., and the lamps burnt from dusk to dawn.
One day a rat, holding in its mouth a lamp wick, set fire to the banners and canopies, and all the seven sections were entirely destroyed. The vihára was later rebuilt in two sections. There were two main entrances, one on the east, one on the west, and Fa Hsien found thúpas erected at all the places connected with the Buddha, each with its name inscribed.
The vihára is almost always referred to as Jetavane Anáthapindikassa Áráma. The Commentaries (MA.ii.50; UdA.56f, etc.) say that this was deliberate (at the Buddha's own suggestion pp.81-131; Beal: op. cit., ii.5 and Rockhill: p.49), in order that the names of both earlier and later owners might be recorded and that people might be reminded of two men, both very generous in the cause of the Religion, so that others might follow their example. The vihára is sometimes referred to as Jetáráma (E.g., Ap.i.400).
In the district of Saheth-Mabeth, with which the region of Sávatthi is identified, Saheth is considered to be Jetavana (Arch. Survey of India, 1907-8, pp.81-131).
2. Jetavana.-A monastery in Anurádhapura, situated in the Jotivana (q.v.) and founded by Mahásena at the instigation of a monk named Tissa of the Dakkhináráma. The monks of the Mahávihára protested against this and Jetavana was later given to them (Mhv.xxxvii.32ff). Attached to the vihára is a large thúpa. The work was completed by Sirimeghavanna (Cv.xxxvii.65). Dáthŕpabhuti held in the vihára the ceremony in honour of the Dhammadhátu (Cv.xli.40; also Cv.Trs.i.55, n.2), while Mahánága gave to it the village of Vasabha in Uddhagáma and three hundred fields, to ensure a permanent supply of rice gruel to the monks (Cv.xli.97f). Aggabodhi II. crowned the thúpa with a lightning conductor (cumbata) (Cv.xlii.66), Jetthatissa I. gave for its maintenance the village of Gondigáma (Cv.xliv.97), and Aggabodhi III. bestowed on it the Mahámanikagáma (Cv.xliv.121). Potthasáta, senápati of Aggabodhi IV., built in the vihára the Aggabodhi-parivena (Cv.xlvi.22), and Aggabodhi IX. made a golden image to be placed in the shrine-room (Cv.xlix.77).
Sena I. erected in the monastery grounds a mansion of several storeys (Cv., l.65). Kassapa V. gave a village for the maintenance of the refectory (Cv.lii.59), while four officials of Mahinda IV. built four parivenas attached to the vihára (Cv.liv.49).
The monks of Jetavana, though nominally forming part of the Mahávihára fraternity, held divergent views in regard to the teachings of the Buddha, and were considered as a separate sect (the Ságaliyas) till Parakkamabáhu 1. united all the fraternities (Cv.lxxviii.22).
The thúpa at Jetavana was restored by Parakkamabáhu I. to a height of two hundred and ten feet (Cv.lxxviii.98).
3. Jetavana.-A monastery in Pulatthipura, built by Parakkamabáhu I. It included the building which housed the Tivanka image (Cv.lxxviii.32, 47). The Nammadá Canal flowed through the grounds of Jetavana. Ibid., lxxix.48. See also Cv.Trs.ii.105, n.5.