Sutta Pitaka
Samyutta Nikāya
Division I –ndash; Sagātha
Book 3 –ndash; Kosala Saṃyutta
Chapter 2 –ndash; Aputtakavaggo

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa.

 

3. 2. 1.

(11) Jatṭilo –ndash; Matted Hair Ascetic

1. At one time the Blessed One was living in the Pubba monastery, the palace of Migara’s mother.

2. The Blessed One was sitting outside, near the gateway having got up from his evening seclusion.

King Pasenadi of Kosala approached the Blessed One, worshipped and sat on a side.

3. At this time seven matted hair ascetics, seven nigantas, seven naked ascetics, seven single-robed ascetics and seven wandering ascetics were passing by, in front of the Blessed One with their slings containing equipments to cut nails and shave, etc.

4. Then king Pasenadi of Kosala got up from his seat, arranged his robe on one shoulder, put his right knee on the ground and clasping hands towards the seven matted hair ascetics, seven nigantas, seven naked ascetics, seven single robed ascetics and the seven wandering ascetics said, “I am king Pasenadi of Kosala” three times.

5. Soon after the seven matted hair ascetics, seven nigantas, seven naked ascetics, seven single robed ascetics and the seven wandering ascetics, had gone away, king Pasenadi of Kosala approached and worshipped the Blessed One, and sat on a side.

6. Sitting, king Pasenadi of Kosala said to the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, these are also some of those who have become perfect, or those fallen to that method.”

7. “Great king, while living in a household enjoying sensual pleasures, enduring the pressure of wife and children, enjoying clothes and scents of Kashmire, bearing flowers and scents and earning gold and silver, it is difficult for you to know, ‘These are the perfect, or this is the method to become perfect.’

8. “Great king, virtues should be known by associating through out a long time mindfully and that too by someone who attends wisely, not in a hurry.

9. “Great king, gentleness should be known by exchange of views, through out a long time mindfully and that too by someone who attends wisely, not in a hurry.

10. “Great king, the steadiness in difficult time should be known by associating through out a long time mindfully and that too by someone who attends wisely, not in a hurry.

11. “Great king, wisdom should be known by discussion, through out a long time mindfully and that too by someone who attends wisely, not in a hurry.”

12. “Venerable sir, these words are wonderful and surprising. ‘Great king, while living in a household enjoying sensual pleasures, ... re ... should be known by discussion, through out a long time and that too by someone who attends wisely not in a hurry.’

13. “Venerable sir, they are my spies returned after investigating the states. First they investigate and afterwards I tour the states.

14. “Now they will wash their dirt and perspiration, shave head and beard, bathe and anoint, dress in clean clothes, will partake of the five strands of sense pleasures provided to them.”

15. The Blessed One knowing, what it means, said these stanzas that moment.

“A person cannot be thoroughly known, by his complexion and form,
Nor should confidence be placed, seeing for a short while.
His tamed ness should be seen in the details.
The not tamed behave in the world, like imitations of mud earrings,
Like valueless coins painted with gold,
A certain one goes about, attended and covered.
Their internal is impure the external decorated.”

 

3. 2. 2.

(12) Pañcarājāno –ndash; The Five Kings

1. In Sāvatthi.

2. At one time this conversation “what is the foremost out of sense pleasures” arose among five kings headed by king Pasenadi, who were attended provided and enjoyed the five strands of sense pleasures.

3. One of them said, forms are the foremost out of the sense pleasures, another said sounds are the foremost, another said scents are the foremost, another said tastes are the foremost and the other said touches are the foremost of the sense pleasures. The five kings could not satisfy each other.

4. Then king Pasenadi of Kosala said to the other four kings, “Sirs, there is the Blessed One let us approach the Blessed One and ask this and as the Blessed One explains it, let us bear it.”

5. The four kings agreed.

6. And the five kings headed by king Pasenadi of Kosala approached the Blessed One worshipped and sat on a side.

7. Seated king Pasenadi of Kosala said to the Blessed One:

“Venerable sir, we five kings are attended, provided and enjoy the five strands of sense pleasures, there is a dispute among us, as to which is the foremost sense pleasure.

“One of us says forms are the foremost out of the sense pleasures, another says sounds are the foremost, another says scents are the foremost, another says tastes are the foremost and the other says touches are the foremost of the sense pleasures. Venerable sir, what sense pleasure is the foremost out of the sense pleasures?”

8. “Great king, I say that the five strands of sense pleasures are merited according to the order they are liked. Great king, a certain one would like forms, another would dislike those forms. He who has satisfied his intentions seeing those forms, does not wish for any other forms more noble or exalted than that. To him those forms become the foremost and noble.

9. “Great king, a certain one would like sounds, ... re ... a certain one would like scents, ... re ... a certain one would like tastes, ... re ... a certain one would like touches another would dislike those touches He who has satisfied his intentions enjoying those touches, does not wish for any other touches more noble or exalted than that. To him those touches become the foremost and noble.”

10. At that time Chandanaṅgalika the lay disciple was seated in that gathering. He got up from his seat arranged his over shawl and clasping hands towards the Blessed One said, “Venerable sir, it occurs to me!”

11. The Blessed One said: “Say it Chandanaṅgalika.”

12. Then Chandanaṅgalika the lay disciple said this suitable stanza in the presence of the Blessed One:

“The Kokanada lotus having bloomed in the morning
Pervades its scent in the directions
Look at the shining Exalted One,
He shines like the sun in the sky.”

13. Then the five kings offered their over shawls to the lay disciple Chandanaṅgalika.

14. The lay disciple Chandanaṅgalika offered the over shawls to the Blessed One.

 

3. 2. 3.

(13) Doṇapaka –ndash; A Measure

1. At that time the Blessed One was living in Sāvatthi, and king Pasenadi of Kosala ate a measure of cooked rice for his meal.

2. King Pasenadi of Kosala having partaken his food and breathing heavily, approached the Blessed One, worshipped and sat on a side.

3. The Blessed One, knowing that King Pasenadi of Kosala had eaten his food and was heavy with food, said this stanza.

“Humans should be always mindful,
To partake the right amount of food
Food arouses feelings, decay sets in quickly
And the life span of humans, dwindle.”

4. At that time the young man Sudassana was standing behind the king.

5. King Pasenadi of Kosala addressed the young man Sudassana: “Dear, Sudassana learn this stanza from the Blessed One and when I partake food say it to me, I will pay you a hundred gold coins daily for it.”

6. The young man Sudassana agreed and learned the stanza from the Blessed One, and when king Pasenadi of Kosāla was taking his meal he said:

Humans should be always mindful,
To partake the right amount of food
Food arouses feelings, decay sets in quickly
And the life span of humans dwindle

7. Then king Pasenadi of Kosala gradually lessened the amount of food he took to one fourth the previous amount.

8. After some time king Pasenadi’s body emaciated and stroking his body king Pasenadi of Kosala made this solemn utterance:

“The Blessed One, was compassionate about my welfare,
Both, of this world and the other world”

 

3. 2. 4.

(14) Sangāme Dve Vuttāni –ndash; Two Battles Occurred

The Blessed One was living in Sāvatthi.

King Ajātasattu of Magadha, son of Vedeha, arranged his fourfold army and pursued king Pasenadi of Kosala as far as Kashmire.

King Pasenadi of Kosala heard, that king Ajātasattu of Magadha, son of Vedeha, had arranged his fourfold army and is pursuing him as far as Kashmire

Then king Pasenadi of Kosala arranged his fourfold army and met king Ajātasattu of Magadha at Kashmire

At Kashmire, king Ajātasattu of Magadha and king Pasenadi of Kosala fought and in the battle king Ajātasattu of Magadha defeated king Pasanadi of Kosala and the defeated king withdrew to his own kingdom in Sāvatthi.

Many bhikkhus putting on robes in the morning, and taking bowls and robes entered Sāvatthi for the alms round. After going the alms round, after the meal was over and returning from the alms round they approached the Blessed One, worshipped, sat on a side and said to the Blessed One:

“Venerable sir, king Ajātasattu of Magadha, son of Vedeha, arranged his fourfold army and pursued king Pasenadi of Kosala as far as Kashmire.

“Then King Pasenadi of Kosala knew that king Ajātasattu of Magadha, son of Vedeha, had arranged his fourfold army and was pursuing him as far as Kashmire, King Pasenadi of Kosala too arranged his fourfold army and met king Ajātasattu of Magadha at Kashmire. At Kashmire, king Ajātasattu of Magadha and king Pasenadi of Kosala fought and in the battle king Ajātasattu of Magadha defeated king Pasanadi of Kosala and the defeated king withdrew to his own kingdom.”

7. “Bhikkhus, king Ajātasattu of Magadha the son of Vedeha has intimate friendship with evil friends and associates. King Pasenadi of Kosala has intimate friendship with good friends and associates. Tonight king Pasenadi of Kosala will sleep unpleasantly, as a defeated.

“Victory gives birth to enmity, the defeated sleep unpleasantly,
The appeased, giving up victory and defeat sleep pleasantly.”

 

3. 2. 5.

(15) Dutiyasaṅgāma –ndash; The Second Battle

King Ajātasattu of Magadha, son of Vedeha, arranged his fourfold army and pursued king Pasenadi of Kosala as far as Kashmire.

King Pasenadi of Kosala heard, that king Ajātasattu of Magadha, son of Vedeha, had arranged his fourfold army and is pursuing him as far as Kashmire

Then king Pasenadi of Kosala arranged his fourfold army and met king Ajātasattu of Magadha at Kashmire

At Kashmire, king Ajātasattu of Magadha and king Pasenadi of Kosala fought and in the battle king Pasenadi of Kosala defeated king Ajātasattu of Magadha, and took possession of him alive.

Then it occurred to king Pasenadi of Kosala, ‘whatever hostility he does to me, king Ajātasattu of Magadha son of Vedeha is my nephew. What if I take hold of all his array of elephants, horses, chariots and foot soldiers and dismiss him alive.

13. Then king Pasenadi of Kosala, took possession of king Ajātasattu of Magadha son of Vedeha’s all the array of elephants, horses, chariots and foot soldiers and dismissed him alive.

Many bhikkhus putting on robes in the morning, and taking bowls and robes entered Sāvatthi for the alms round. After going the alms round and when the meal was over and returning from the alms round they approached the Blessed One, worshipped, sat on a side and said to the Blessed One:

“Venerable sir, king Ajātasattu of Magadha, son of Vedeha, arranged his fourfold army and pursued king Pasenadi of Kosala as far as Kashmire. Then King Pasenadi of Kosala heard, that king Ajātasattu of Magadha, son of Vedeha, had arranged his fourfold army d was pursuing him as far as Kashmire, King Pasenadi of Kosala too arranged his fourfold army and met king Ajātasattu of Magadha at Kashmire. At Kashmire, king Ajātasattu of Magadha and king Pasenadi of Kosala fought and in the battle king Pasenadi of Kosala, defeated king Ajātasattu of Magadha and captured him alive. Then it occurred to king Pasenadi of Kosala, ‘whatever hostility he, does to me, king Ajātasattu of Magadha son of Vedeha is my nephew. What if I capture all his array of elephants, horses, chariots and foot soldiers and dismiss him alive.’

Then king Pasenadi of Kosala, captured king Ajātasattu of Magadha son of Vedeha’s all the array of elephants, horses, chariots and foot soldiers and dismissed him alive.

Then the Blessed One knowing its meaning said these stanzas that moment.

“Man indeed plunders in a way beneficial to him,
On a day that others plunder, the plundered too plunder.
The fool thinks it’s my turn, until evil bears fruit.
When evil bears fruit, the fool feels unpleasant.
The destroyer in turn gets destroyed
Those who won get the victory
He that abuses, gets an abusing,
An angered one, returns the anger,
Thus with the turning of the tide
The plundered becomes the plunderer.”

 

3. 2. 6.

(16) Dhītā –ndash; A Daughter

1. The origin is in Sāvatthi.

2. King Pasenadi of Kosala approached the Blessed One, worshipped and sat on a side.

3. Then a certain person approached king Pasenadi of Kosala and whispered in his ear that queen Mallika gave birth to a daughter.

4. Hearing this, king Pasenadi of Kosala, became displeased.

5. The Blessed One knowing the reason for the displeasure of king Pasenadi of Kosala said these stanzas that moment.

“Even if it’s a woman, would be noble nourished by the king,
Would be wise, virtuous, worship the mother-in-law and love her husband.
Those born to her will be heroes and district leaders,
The son of such a good wife might even be the advisor to kings.”

 

3. 2. 7.

(17) Appamāda I –ndash; Diligence

1. In Sāvatthi.

2. King Pasenadi of Kosala approached the Blessed One, worshipped and sat on a side Seated, king Pasenadi of Kosala said: “Venerable sir, is there one thing, with which, one could attain welfare in this and the other world?”

3. “Great king, there is one thing, with which, one could attain welfare in this and the other world.”

4. “Venerable sir, what is the one thing, with which, one could attain welfare in this and the other world?”

5. “Great king, diligence is the one thing, with which, one could attain welfare in this and the other world. Just as the foot prints of all moving things get included in the foot print of the elephant, and it is said to be the foremost of foot prints, in the same manner, great king, with this one thing, the welfare in this and the other world, could be attained.

6. “By those wishing with attachment the excellence, again and again
Of life span, good health, beauty, heavens and high birth,
Merit should be done, wisely appreciating diligence.
Diligence, serves for the welfare of this and the other world.
When the diligent one attains his aim, he is called a wise man.

3. 2. 8.

(18) Appamada II –ndash; Diligence II

1. In Sāvatthi.

2. King Pasenadi of Kosala approached the Blessed One, worshipped and sat on a side.

Seated, king Pasenadi of Kosala said: “Venerable sir, when I was thinking in seclusion this thought occurred to me.’The Blessed One’s Teaching is well proclaimed and it is the intimate friendship with good friends and good associates, not the intimate friendship with evil friends and evil associates.”

“Great king, that is so, my Teaching is well proclaimed and it is the intimate friendship with good friends and good associates, not the intimate friendship with evil friends and evil associates.”

4. “Great king, once I was living in a hamlet of the Sakyas.

5. “Then, great king, bhikkhu Ānanda approached me, worshipped and sat on a side and said: ‘Venerable sir, leading the holy life is half the intimate friendship with good friends and good associates.’

6. “Great king, when this was said, I said to the bhikkhu Ānanda, ‘Ānanda, do not say so! Leading the holy life is not half but completely the intimate friendship with good friends and good associates. Ānanda, the bhikkhu desiring the intimate friendship with good friends and good associates, will develop the noble eightfold path and make much of it.

7. ‘Ānanda, how does the bhikkhu, a good friend, a good associate develop and make much of the intimate friendship with the noble eightfold path?

8. ‘Here, Ānanda, the bhikkhu develops right view, bent on seclusion, bent on fading, bent to ceasing, to relax in the maturity of surrender. Develops right thoughts, ... re ... right speech, ... re ... right action, ... re ... right livelihood, ... re ... right endeavor, ... re ... right mindfulness ... re ... right concentration bent on seclusion, bent on fading, bent on ceasing, to relax in the maturity of surrender. Ānanda, in this manner the bhikkhu, a good friend, a good associate an intimate friend, develops and makes much of the noble eightfold path.’

9. ‘Ānanda, in this manner it should be known, how a good friendship, a good association and an intimate friendship, is the complete holy life.

10. ‘Ānanda, beings, born, coming to me in search of a good friend, are released from birth. Decaying beings, coming to me in search of a good friend, are released from decay. Beings with the nature of dying, coming to me in search of a good friend, are released from death. Beings, with the nature of grieving, lamenting, unpleasantness, displeasure and distress coming to me in search of a good friend, are released from grief, lament, unpleasantness, displeasure and distress. Ānanda, in this manner it should be known, how a good friendship, a good association and an intimate friendship, is leading a complete holy life.’

11. “Therefore, great king, you should. Train, thus: ‘I will be a good friend with good associates and with good intimate friendships.’ Great king a good friend with good associates and with good intimate friendships should live dependent on this one thing, diligence in meritorious things.

12. “Great king, when you live diligently, it will occur to the queens in the harem: ‘The king lives diligently attached to diligence, now we too should live attached to diligence.’

13. “Great king, when you live diligently, it will occur to the subordinate warrior kings, ‘The king lives diligently attached to diligence, now we too should live attached to diligence.’

14. “Great king, when you live diligently, it will occur to the people in the hamlets villages and states, ‘The king lives diligently attached to diligence, now we too should live attached to diligence.’

15. “Great king, when you live diligently, the self will be protected, the harem will be protected, the treasures and the granary will be protected.

16. “By those wishing with attachment the excellence, again and again
Merit should be done, wisely appreciating diligence.
Diligence, serves for the welfare of this and the other world.
When the diligent one attains his aim, he is called a wise man.”

 

3. 2. 9.

(19) Aputtaka I –ndash; Without Heirs I

The origin is Sāvatthi.

King Pasenadi of Kosala daily approached the Blessed One worshipped and sat on a side. Then the Blessed One asked king Pasenadi of Kosala, “Great king, why do you come to see me daily?”

“Venerable sir, a wealthy householder of Sāvatthi, who has no heirs has died. I have caused his wealth to be carried to the royal treasury and came here. Venerable sir, in gold coins only there were eighty hundred thousand, there’s nothing to speak of other coins. This wealthy householder enjoyed meals of porridge prepared of broken rice accompanied with seed cakes. He wore decayed clothes of hemp. His conveyance was a decayed vehicle thatched with leaves.”

“Great king, it is so! Non-great beings gaining wealth do not enjoy it themselves, do not please mother and father, or wife and children, or slaves and workmen, or friends and associates, nor give gifts to recluses and Brahmins, for heavenly bliss. Thus their wealth not enjoyed rightfully, either the king carries it away, or robbers carry it away or else fire burns it or is carried away by the water, or unwanted heirs. Great king when this is so, wealth, not rightfully enjoyed goes waste, and not enjoyed.

“Great king, it’s like a pond in a well established place, with pure, cool, good white water seized by non humans. People do not, carry, drink, bathe or do anything with it. Great king in the same manner non-great beings obtaining great wealth, do not enjoy it, themselves ... re ... not rightfully enjoyed goes waste and not enjoyed.

“Great beings obtaining wealth enjoy it themselves, please mother and father, wife and children, slaves and workmen, and friends and associates They give gifts to recluses and Brahmins, for heavenly bliss. Thus their wealth is enjoyed rightfully. The king does not carry it away, robbers do not take it, fire does not burn it or water does not carry it, nor do unwanted heirs carry it away. Great king when this is so, wealth rightfully enjoyed does not go waste, it is enjoyed.

“Great king, it’s like a pond well established close to the village or hamlet, with pure, cool, good, white, water. People carry it, drink it, bathe in it or do anything they like with it. Great king, in the same manner great beings obtaining great wealth enjoy it themselves ... re ... is rightfully enjoyed does not go waste it is enjoyed.

Water in a place seized by non humans,
Is not drunk, it gets wasted
Likewise the wealth obtained by low humans
Is neither enjoyed, nor given to others.
The wise one obtaining wealth,
Enjoys it himself and does what should be done.
He attends to his relations, like a bull bearing the load
And he blamelessly procures a place in heaven.”

 

3. 2. 10.

10. (20) Aputtaka II –ndash; Without Heirs II

1. King Pasenadi of Kosala approached the Blessed One daily, worshipped and sat on a side. Then the Blessed One asked king Pasenadi of Kosala, “Great king, why do you come to see me daily?”

2. “Venerable sir, a wealthy householder of Sāvatthi, who has no heirs has died. I have caused his wealth to be carried to the royal treasury and came here. Venerable sir, in gold coins only there were one hundred hundred thousands, there’s nothing to speak of other coins. This wealthy householder enjoyed meals of porridge prepared of broken rice accompanied with seed cakes. He wore decayed clothes of hemp. His conveyance was a decayed vehicle thatched with leaves.

3. “This happens, great king. In the past this wealthy householder, offering morsel food to a silent Buddha named Tagarasikkhi, said ‘offer food to the recluse’ and getting up from his seat he went away. After giving too he was remorseful and said: ‘Good, if slaves and workmen were fed with that food.’ He also killed his brother’s only son, on account of a dispute for wealth.

4. “Great king, if this wealthy householder had offered morsel food to the silent Buddha Tagarasikkhi, as its result he would have been born in heavenly bliss seven times and also he would have been born in this same Sāvatthi seven times as a wealthy housseholder

5. “Great king, as results for saying ‘good if slaves and workmen were fed with that food’ his mind does not bend to enjoy noble food, to wear good clothes, to use noble conveyances and to enjoy the five strands of noble sense pleasures.

6. “Great king, as a result of killing his brother’s only son for reasons of wealth, the wealthy householder for many, many hundred thousands of years suffered in hell and as a result of it, for the seventh time, this wealthy householder became heirless and happened to turn, his wealth to the royal treasury. Great king, this wealthy householder’s earlier merit got destroyed and new merit did not get accumulated. Today this wealthy householder suffers in the Mahāroruva hell.”

7. “Then venerable sir, the wealthy householder is in the Mahāroruva hell.”

8. “Yes, great king the wealthy householder is born in the Mahāroruva hell.”

9. “Grains, wealth, silver and gold or whatever thing that is seized,
Slaves, workmen, messengers or any others living together,
None of these are taken, when going everything is abandoned.

10. Whatever is done by body, words and mind, that only becomes his own
He goes with it and it follows him like his shadow.

11. Therefore, always do good, accumulating for the here after.
Merit establishes living beings in the other world.”