Sutta Pitaka
Samyutta Nikāya
Division I –– Sagātha
Book 3 –– Kosala Saṃyutta
Chapter 3 –– Kosalavaggo

Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa.

 

3. 3. 1.

(21) Puggala –– Persons

1. In Sāvatthi.

2. King Pasenadi of Kosala, approached the Blessed One, worshipped and sat on a side. Then the Blessed One said to him: “Great king, there are four persons evident in the world.

3. “What four? A certain person goes from dark to dark, another person from dark to light, another from light to dark and another person from light to light.

4. Great king, who is the person going from dark to dark? Here great king, a certain person is born in a low clan, either in an outcaste clan, a bamboo workers clan, a hunter’s clan, a chariot maker’s clan, or a clan of refuse collectors. He is born poor and collects eatables and drinks with difficulty. Further, with deformed shapes is not attractive and handsome. He is born with disabilities like blindness, or lameness in one or both limbs. He is not the quick gainer of eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, flowers, scents, ointments, beds, seats, dwellings and lights. He misbehaves by body, speech and mind and after death is born in hell. Great king, it is like a man in the dark, going towards the darkness, like a man with blood stains going for blood stains. Great king, I give this comparison to the man going from dark to dark.

5. “Great king, who is the person going from dark to light? Here great king, a certain person is born in a low clan, either in an outcaste clan, a bamboo workers clan, a hunter’s clan, a chariot maker’s clan, or a clan of refuse collectors. He is born poor and collects eatables and drinks with difficulty. Further, with deformed shapes is not attractive and handsome. He is born with disabilities like blindness, or lameness in one or both limbs. He is not the quick gainer of eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, flowers, scents, ointments, beds, seats, dwellings and lights. He conducts himself well, by body, speech and mind and after death is born in heaven. Great king, he is like a man on the ground, getting on to a cushion, from the cushion climbing to horse back, from the horse back climbing on the elephant and from the back of the elephant climbing to a palace. Great king, I give this comparison to the man going from dark to light.

6. “Great king, who is the person going from light to dark? Here, great king a certain person is born in a high clan either in a Brahmin, a warrior or a householder clan with great halls much wealth and resources, with much gold and silver, with much grains. He is born handsome, endowed with the highest attractiveness. He is the gainer of eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, flowers, scents, ointments, beds, seats, dwellings and lights. He misbehaves by body, speech and mind and after death is born in hell. Great king, he is like a man in a palace, who descends to an elephant’s back, From the elephant’s back, descends to the horse back From the back of the horse descends to a cushion. From the cushion he descends to earth and from earth descends to darkness. Great king, I give this comparison to the man going from light to dark.

7. “Great king, who is the person going from light to light? Here, great king a certain person is born in a high clan either in a Brahmin, a warrior or a householder clan with great halls much wealth and resources, with much gold and silver, with much grains. He is born handsome, endowed with the highest attractiveness. He is the gainer of eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, flowers, scents, ointments, beds, seats, dwellings and lights. He conducts himself well in body, speech and mind and after death, he is born in heaven. He is like a man who moves from one cushion to the other, from one horse back to the other, from one elephant’s back to the other elephant’s back and from one mansion to the other. Great king, I compare this person to one going from light to light.

8. “Great king, these persons are evident in the world.

 

9. “A miserly man without faith and means, in view gone wrong,
With evil thoughts, greedy and without compassion,
Angry without a reason, he rebukes and debases, recluses,
Brahmins, or wayfarers and prevents them from getting gifts.
Leader of men, such a man gets his rewards,
Going from dark to dark he is born in hell.
10. Great king, a poor, benevolent man, has faith,
He offers gifts with pure, undistracted thoughts,
Gets up from his seat, worships, honoring the quiet livelihood
Of recluses, Brahmins, or wayfarers
He does not prevent them, from getting gifts.
Leader of men, such a man gets his rewards,
Going from dark to light he is born in heaven

11. Great king, a miserly rich man without faith and view gone wrong,
With evil thoughts, greedy and without compassion,
Angry, without a reason, he rebukes and debases, recluses,
Brahmins, or wayfarers and prevents them from getting gifts.
Leader of men, such a man gets his rewards,
Going from light to dark he is born in hell.

12. Great king, a rich, benevolent, man, has faith,
He offers gifts with pure, undistracted thoughts,
Gets up from his seat, worships, honoring the quiet livelihood
Of recluses, Brahmins, or wayfarers
He does not prevent them, from getting gifts.
Leader of men, such a man gets his rewards,
Going from light to light he is born in heaven”

 

3. 3. 2.

(22) Ayyakā –– Grandfather

1. The origin is Sāvatthi.

2. King Pasenadi of Kosala approached the Blessed One daily, worshipped and sat on a side. Then the Blessed One asked king Pasenadi of Kosala, “Great king, why do you come to see me daily?”

3. “Venerable sir, my grandfather who is decayed, aged, lived one hundred and twenty years, has died.

4. “Venerable sir, my grandfather was a dear one. I would gain the jewel of an elephant. Yet, I do not want my grandfather to die. I would give away the jewel of an elephant, if my grandfather would not die. I would gain the jewel of a horse. Yet, I do not want my grandfather to die. I would give away the jewel of a horse, if my grandfather would not die. I would gain the grant of a village. Yet, I do not want my grandfather to die. I would give away the grant of a village, if my grandfather would not die. I would be the gainer of a state. Yet, I do not want my grandfather to die. I would give away, even the state, if my grandfather would not die.”

5. “Great king, all beings die. Death is the end and none have gone beyond death.”

6. “Indeed, venerable sir, these words are wonderful and surprising. ‘All beings die. Death is the end and none have gone beyond death.’”

7. “Great king, that happens. All beings die. Death is the end and none have gone beyond death. Just as whatever vessels made by the potter, whether baked or not baked, all of them break up, they have not gone beyond breaking up. In the same manner all beings die. Death is the end and none have gone beyond death.”

8. All beings die, death is the end of life,
They go according to their actions,
As merit and demerit bear fruit
Doing demerit go to hell and doing merit to heaven.
Therefore do good, accumulating for the other world.
Merit establishes beings in the next world.”

 

3. 3. 3.

(23) Loko –– The World

1. In Sāvatthi

2. King Pasenadi of Kosala, approached the Blessed One, worshipped, sat on a side and said to the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, how many things arise in the world for its ill being, unpleasantness and distress?”

3. “Great king, three things arise in the world for its ill being, unpleasantness and distress.

4. “What three? Great king, greed, hate and delusion arise in the world for its ill being, unpleasantness and distress.

5. “Great king, these three things arise in the world for its ill being, unpleasantness and distress.

Greed, hate and delusion, the evil intentions of man,
Born from his self hurts him,
As the best bark that destroys its fruits.”

 

3. 3. 4.

(24) Issattaṃ –– Achery

1. In Sāvatthi

2. King Pasenadi of Kosala, approached the Blessed One, worshipped, sat on a side and said to the Blessed One: “Venerable sir, to whom, should gifts be given?”

3. “Great king, gifts given to them, where the mind is pleased, is of great fruit.”

4. “Venerable sir, gifts, given to whom, are of much fruit?”

5. “Great king, to whom, should gifts be given is one thing and given to whom are gifts of much fruit is another. Gifts given to virtuous bhikkhus, are of great fruit, gifts given to bhikkhus who are not virtuous are not so fruitful. I will cross question you on this same and you may reply, as it pleases you.

6. “Great king, you have a battle to be fought, then warrior princes not trained and without experience in archery, who would be frightened and would run away from the battle field, come. Would you recruit them, would they serve the purpose?”

7. “Venerable sir, I will not recruit them and they would not serve my purpose.”

8. “Then Brahmin princes, ... re ... householder princes, ... re ... outcaste princes, not trained and without experience in archery, who would be frightened and would run away from the battle field, come. Would you recruit them, would they serve the purpose?”

“Venerable sir, I will not recruit them and they would not serve my purpose.”

9. “Great king, you have a battle to be fought, then warrior princes trained and experienced in archery, who would not be frightened and would not run away from the battle field, come. Would you recruit them, would they serve the purpose?”

10. “Venerable sir, I will recruit them and they would serve my purpose.”

11. “Then Brahmin princes, ... re ... householder princes, ... re ... outcaste princes, trained and experienced in archery, who would not be frightened and would not run away from the battle field, come. Would you recruit them, would they serve the purpose?”

12. “Venerable sir, I will recruit them, they would serve my purpose.”

13. “Great king, in the same manner, leaving whatever clans they left home and became homeless, given to them who have dispelled five factors and are endowed with five factors are fruitful.

14. “What are the five factors dispelled? They have dispelled sensual greed, anger, sloth and torpor, restlessness and worry and doubts. They have dispelled these five factors.

15. “With what five factors are they endowed? With the mass of virtues, concentration, wisdom, release and the knowledge and insight of release of one gone beyond the training They are endowed with these five factors.

16. “Thus gifts given to those who have dispelled five factors and are endowed with five factors are fruitful.”

17. The Blessed One, the Teacher further said:

Seeing, archery and manly power in humans,
The king recruits them, for the battle, not the pure, by birth.
In the same manner, if the wise leading the holy life,
Are patient and gentle, even if born low, are worshipped
Make pleasant hermitages, establish learned ones, they will
End the diffused ness and cross the difficult path.
With a non distracted, pleasant mind give them,
Eatables, drinks, nourishments, clothes and dwellings,
Like the rainy cloud which brings lightening
In hundreds and fills the highlands and lowlands,
The wise one who is learned and has faith
Prepares food and pleases the wayfarers
Giving them eatables and drinks
Rejoicing ones scatter there and shout for food,
That is the thunder, for the rains to fall,
The down pours of merit are immense for the giver.”

 

3. 3. 5.

(25) Pabbatūpamam –– Comparable to a Rock

1. The origin is Sāvatthi.

2. King Pasenadi of Kosala, approached the Blessed One, worshipped, sat on a side and the Blessed One said to him: “Great king, for what reason did you come to see me?”

3. “Venerable sir, there are some head anointed warrior kings intoxicated by the authority of their kingdoms, who pursue after sensual greed and lordship of the states. They rule over their large kingdoms well established and with much work, now they envy me.”

4. “Here, great king, a trustworthy, reliable person comes from the eastern direction and tells you, ‘Great king I came from the east, I saw a moving, large mountain, similar to a cloud, destroying all living things on its way. If there is something you could do, do it now.’”

5. “A second trustworthy, reliable person comes from, the western direction, ... re ... a third from the northern direction, ... re ... a fourth from the southern direction, and tells you, ‘Great king I came from the south, I saw a moving, large mountain, similar to a cloud, destroying all living things on its way. If there is something you could do, do it now. Great king, such a great fear, a great massacre of humans has arisen. Humanity is difficult to obtain. What should be done about it?’”

6. “Venerable sir, when, such great fear, a great massacre of humans has arisen, when humanity is obtained with difficulty what else could be done, other than leading a peaceful life, living according to the Teaching, doing merit?”

7. “Great king, I speak loud and announce to you. Decay and death are approaching. Great king when decay and death are approaching, what could be done about it?”

8. “Venerable sir, when decay and death are approaching me, what else could be done, other than leading a peaceful life, living according to the Teaching, doing merit?

9. “Venerable sir, whoever these, head anointed warrior kings intoxicated by the authority of their kingdoms, pursuing sensuality greedily, well established lords of the states in which they rule have wars of the elephants. When decay and death are issuing forth, there is no use of elephant wars.

10. “Venerable sir, these head anointed warrior kings intoxicated by the authority of their kingdoms, pursuing sensuality greedily, well established lords of the states in which they rule have wars of the horses, ... re ... of chariots, ... re ... of foot soldiers. When decay and death are issuing forth, there is no use of wars of foot soldiers.

11. “Venerable sir, in this royal clan, there are ministers with secret plans, when enemies come, they could make secret plans to destroy the enemy. When decay and death are issuing forth, there is no use of secret wars.

12. “Venerable sir, in this clan there is a lot of gold, treasured under ground and in the open. When the enemy comes it would be possible to win them over with wealth. When decay and death are issuing forth, there is no use of wars of wealth.

13. “Venerable sir, when decay and death are approaching me, what else could be done, other than leading a peaceful life, living according to the Teaching, doing merit.”

14. “Great king, that is so, when decay and death are approaching you, what else could be done, other than leading a peaceful life, living according to the Teaching, doing merit.” Further the Teacher said:

“A huge moving rock; a misty mountain, would leave nothing
But destroy and kill all, in the four directions,
In the same manner decay and death, overcome all living things
The warriors, Brahmins, householder stock, slaves, outcastes
And refuse collectors, none exempting all will be crushed.
This war cannot be won with elephants, chariots, foot soldiers,
Not even by secret plans or even by the power of wealth.
Therefore the wise seeing their own welfare, gain faith
In the Enlightenment, the Teaching and Community of bhikkhus,
Who ever lives according to the Teaching by body, words and mind,
Here itself become pleased and later they delight in heaven.”