Aïguttara Nikàya
3
. Tika Nipàta

9. Samanavagga
Recluses

1. Samanasuttaü Ý Recluses

82. Bhikkhus, these three are the activities of a recluse. What three? Training in higher virtues, [1]training the mind to a higher degree and training for the higher wisdom. Bhikkhus, these three are the activities of a recluse. Therefore bhikkhus, you should train thus: Our interest will be keen, to train in higher virtues, to train the mnd to a higher degree and for a higher training in wisdom.

Notes. 1 Training in higher virtues. `adhisãla sikkhà samàdànaü. It is the control of the mental faculties. All observed virtues aim at the control of the mental faculties and the ultimate end of the holy life is the complete control of the mental faculties. The Blessed One explains that `a¤¤àvimutti' is the release that one experiences when his mental faculties are in complete control.

 2. Gadrabhasuttaü Ý A donkey

83. Bhikkhus, a donkey follows after the cattle, saying I'm one of you. He hasn't the colour, the calling and the feet of the cattle, yet he follows after the cattle saying I'm one of you. Bhikkhus, in like manner a certain bhikkhu follows after the Community of bhikkhus, thinking I'm also a bhikkhu. He hasn't that interest for training in higher virtues, for training the mnd to a higher degree and training in higher wisdom, as the other bhikkhus do have. He follows after the Community of bhikkhus thinking I'm also a bhikkhu.

Therefore bhikkhus, you should train thus: Our interest will be keen to train in higher virtues, for training the mnd to a higher degree and for training in higher wisdom.

3. Kassakasuttaü Ý A farmer

84. Bhikkhus, these three activities should be done earlier by the farmer. What three?

Here bhikkhus, the farmer should first prepare the field, then harrow it well carefully and embed the seeds at the right time. At the right time he should lead the water in and at the right time lead it out. Bhikkhus, these three are the activities that should be done earlier by the farmer.

Bhikkhus, in the same mnner these three activities should be done earlier by the bhikkhu. What three? Training in thehigher virtues, training the mind to a higher degree and training for higher wisdom. Bhikkhus, these three are the activities of a recluse. Therefore bhikkhus, you should train thus: Our interest will be keen for training in the higher virtues, for training the mnd to a higher degree and for a higher training in wisdom.

4. Vajjiputtasuttàü

85. I heard thus. At one time the Blessed One was living in the gabled hall in the Great Forest in Vesali. Then a certain bhikkhu of the Vajjiputtaka's approached the Blessed One, worshipped, sat on a side and said: Venerable sir, the two hundred and fifty rules are beyond capacity, and the coming for the recital every fortinight. Venerable sir, it is not possible for me to train in them.

Bhikkhu, is it possible for you to train in three precepts: Observing the precept for higher virtues, training the mind to a higher degree, and training for higher wisdom?

Venerable sir, it possible for me to train in three precepts: Observing the precept for higher virtues, training the mind to a higher degree and training for higher wisdom.

Then bhikkhu you train in these three precepts: Observing the precept higher virtues, training the mind to a higher degree and training for higher wisdom. Bhikkhu, when you train in these three observing the precept for higher virtues, training the mind to a higher degree and training for higher wisdom, your greed will fade, hate will fade and delusion will fade. With the fading of greed, hate and delusion, you will not do demerit and will not practise any evil.

In the meantime that bhikkhu trained in these three observing the precept for higher virtues, training the mind to a higher degree and training for higher wisdom, then his greed faded, hate faded and delusion faded. With the fading of greed, hate and delusion, he did no demerit and practised no evil.

5. Sekhasuttaü Ý The Trainer.

86. Then a certain bhikkhu approached the Blessed One, worshipped, sat on a side and said: Venerable sir, it is said a trainer. How is one a trainer?

Bhikkhu, one trains, therefore he is called a trainer.

In what does he train? He trains in higher virtues, training the mind to a higher degree and training for higher wisdom.

The trainer who trains himself, going on the direct path
Sees destruction first and knowledge comes without a break
To those released knowing,[1] that becomes the knowledge
When the bond being [2] is destroyed, he knows my release is unshakeable.

Notes

1. To those released knowing `a¤¤à vimuttassa' This is one of the releases that the Blessed One tells about. It is the complete control of the six mental faculties. That is no feelings arise on account of any contacts at one or the other of the doors of mental contact. This is said to be the bliss of extinction here and now.

2. When the bond being is destroyed `bhavasa¤¤ojanakkhaye' Bhava is thinking and for unshakeable release thinking has to stop.

 

6. Pañhamasikkhàsuttaü Ý The first on precepts

87. Bhikkhus, the two hundred and fifty rules are beyond capacity, and the coming for the recital every fortinight, the sons of clansmen seeking their own good, observe them.

In these three precepts all those get included. What three?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes complete, observing the virtues and complete to a lesser degree in concentration and wisdom. He transgresses certain minor precepts and eventually emerges from them. What is the reason? Bhikkhus, saying it correctly it would happen. Of the main precepts dealing with the holy life and conducive to the holy life he is fixed and firm. He destroys the three bonds and enters the stream of the Teaching, becoming one who does not fall from that, directly aims extinction.

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes complete, observing the virtues and complete to a lesser degree in concentration and wisdom. He transgresses certain minor precepts and eventually emerges from them. What is the reason? Bhikkhus, saying it correctly it would happen. Of the main precepts dealing with the holy life and conducive to the holy life he is fixed and firm. He destroys the three bonds and reducing his greed, hate and delusion becomes one who returns to this world once more to make an end of unpleasantness.

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes complete, observing the virtues and complete in concentration and wisdom. He transgresses certain minor precepts and eventually emerges from them. What is the reason? Bhikkhus, saying it correctly it would happen. Of the main precepts dealing with the holy life and conducive to the holy life he is fixed and firm. Destroying the five bonds of the sensual world he takes sponteneous birth and would extinguish in that same birth, without a fall from there.

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes complete, observing the virtues and complete in concentration and wisdom. He transgresses certain minor precepts and eventually emerges from them. What is the reason? Bhikkhus, saying it correctly it would happen. Of the main precepts dealing with the holy life and conducive to the holy life he is fixed and firm. He will destroy desires, release the mind, and released through wisdom here and now realize and abide.

Thus bhikkhus, one becomes successful little by little, and complete little by little I declare the precepts in that manner, without making a mistake.

7. Dutiyasikkhàsuttaü Ý The Second on precepts

88 Bhikkhus, the two hundred and fifty rules are beyond capacity, and the coming for the recital every fortinight, the sons of clansmen seeking their own good, observe them.

In these three precepts all those get included. What three?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes complete, observing the virtues and complete to a lesser degree in concentration and wisdom. He transgresses certain minor precepts and eventually emerges from them. What is the reason? Bhikkhus, saying it correctly it would happen. Of the main precepts dealing with the holy life and conducive to the holy life he is fixed and firm. He destroys the three bonds and limits his births to seven times the most, being born among gods or men makes an end of unpleasantness. Destroying three bonds, he goes from clan to clan, being born in two or three clans makes an end of unpleasantness. He destroys the three bonds and being born one more time as a human makes an end of unpleasantness. He destroys three bonds and reducing his greed, hate and delusion, returns once more to this world to make an end of unpleasantness.

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes complete, observing the virtues and complete in concentration and wisdom. He transgresses certain minor precepts and eventually emerges from them. What is the reason? Bhikkhus, saying it correctly it would happen. Of the main precepts dealing with the holy life and conducive to the holy life he is fixed and firm. He destroys five bonds binding him to the sensual world and becomes one going up stream, going up to the highest world of Brahma. He destroys the five bonds binding him to the sensual world and extinguishes with determinations. He destroys the five bonds binding him to the sensual world and extinguishes without determinations. He destroys the five bonds binding him to the sensual world and extinguishes destroying himself. He destroys the five bonds binding him to the sensual world and becomes one on the way to extinction.

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes complete, observing the virtues and complete in concentration and wisdom. He transgresses certain minor precepts and eventually emerges from them. What is the reason? Bhikkhus, saying it correctly it would happen. Of the main precepts dealing with the holy life and conducive to the holy life he is fixed and firm. He destroys desires, releases the mind, and released through wisdom here and now realizes and abides.

Thus bhikkhus, one becomes successful little by little, and complete little by little I declare the precepts in that manner, without making a mistake.

8. Tatiyasikkhasuttaü Ý The Third on precepts.

89. Bhikkhus, the two hundred and fifty rules are beyond capacity, and the coming for the recital every fortinight, the sons of clansmen seeking their own good, observe them.

In these three precepts all those get included. What three?

Precept for higher virtues,[1] precept for higher development of the mind and precept for higher wisdom. In these three precepts all those get included.

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes complete, observing the virtues and complete in concentration and wisdom. He transgresses certain minor precepts and eventually emerges from them. What is the reason? Bhikkhus, saying it correctly it would happen. Of the main precepts dealing with the holy life and conducive to the holy life he is fixed and firm. He destroys desires, releases the mind, and released through wisdom here and now realizes and abides.

Even if he be unable to penetrate and realize it, destroying the five bonds binding him to the sensual world, he destroys himself and extinguishes ... re ... extinguishes without determinatuions, ... re ... extinguishes with determinations, ... re ... becomes one who goes up stream as far as the highest Brahma world.

Even if he be unable to penetrate and realize it, destroying the three bonds and reducing greed, hate and delusion, comes once more to this world to make an end of unpleasantness.

Even if he be unable to penetrate and realize it, destroying the three bonds becomes a human once more and makes an end of unpleasantness.

Even if he be unable to penetrate and realize it, destroying three bonds, he goes from clan to clan, being born in two or three clans makes an end of unpleasantness.

Even if he be unable to penetrate and realize it, destroying three bonds He limits his births to seven times the most, being born among gods or men makes an end of unpleasantness.

Thus bhikkhus, one becomes successful little by little, and complete little by little I declare the precepts in that manner, without making a mistake.

9. Pañhamasikkhattayasuttaü Ý The first explanation of the precepts.

90. Bhikkhus, these three are the precepts. What three? Observing the precept for higher virtues, training the mind to a higher degree and higher wisdom.

Bhikkhus, what is the precept for higher virtues?

Here bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes virtuous observing the precept for higher virtues [1] To this is called observing the precept for higher virtues.

Bhikkhus, what is training the mind for a higher degree?

Here, bhikikhus the bhikkhu secluding the mind from sensual and evil thoughts, with thoughts and thought processes and with joy and pleasantness born of seclusion attains to the first jhana. Allaying thoughts and thought processes and the mind internally appeased and brought to one point, without thoughts and thought processes and with joy and pleasantness born of concentration attains to the second jhana. With detachment to joy abides in equanimity. Mindful and aware experiences pleasantness too with the body. This is the third jhana, to this the noble ones say mindfully abiding in pleasantness with equanimity. Giving up pleasantness and unpleasantness and earlier gone beyond pleasure and displeasure and experiencing neither the pleasant nor the unpleasant by purifying mindfulness with equanimity attains to the forth jhana. To this is called training the mind to a higher degree.

Bhikkhus, what is training for higher wisdom?.

Here bhikkhus, the bhikkhu knows as it really is, this is unpleasant. Knows as it really is, this is the arising of unpleasantness. Knows as it really is, this is the cessation of unpleasantness and knows as it really is, this is the path to the cessation of unpleasantness. Bhikkhus, to this is called training for higher wisdom. Bhikkhus, these three are the precepts.

Notes. 1 The precept for higher virtues. `adhisãlasikkhàsamàdànaü' It is the control of the six mental facuolties. When controlled in the six mental faculties, all other precepts get included in it.

10. Dutiyasikkhattayasuttaü Ý The second explanation of the precepts.

91 Bhikkhus, these three are the precepts. What three? Observing the precept for higher virtues, training the mind to a higher degree and training for higher wisdom.

Bhikkhus, what is the precept for higher virtues?

Here bhikkhus, the bhikkhu becomes virtuous observing the precept for higher virtues To this is called observing the precept for higher virtues.

Bhikkhus, what is training the mind for a higher degree?

Here, bhikikhus the bhikkhu secluding the mind from sensual and evil thoughts, with thoughts and thought processes and with joy and pleasantness born of seclusion attains to the first jhana. Allaying thoughts and thought processes and the mind internally appeased and brought to one point, without thoughts and thought processes and with joy and pleasantness born of concentration attains to the second jhana. With detachment to joy abides in equanimity. Mindful and aware experiences pleasantness too with the body. This is the third jhana, to this the noble ones say mindfully abiding in pleasantness with equanimity. Giving up pleasantness and unpleasantness and earlier gone beyond pleasure and displeasure and experiencing neither the pleasant nor the unpleasant by purifying mindfulness with equanimity attains to the forth jhana. To this is called training the mind to a higher degree.

Bhikkhus, what is training for higher wisdom?.

Here bhikkhus, the bhikkhu destroying desires, and releasing the mind from desires and released through wisdom, abides here and now having realized.

Bhikkhus, to this is called training for higher wisdom. These are the three precepts.

Energetic, to practise the higher virtues, to raise the mind to a higher level,
And for higher wisdom, he becomes steadfast with controlled mental faculties
To attain immeasurable concentration in the face, behind the back,
Beneath and above, as far as the directions, day and night.

This is the trainer's method, and the best method
This same was followed by the Enlightened Ones in the world.
With the cessation of consciousness, there is destruction of craving and release
With the light of emancipation is the release of mind.

Note.

1. The precept for higher virtues. `adhisãlasikkhàsamàdànaü' It is the control of the six mental faculties which when controlled all other precepts get included in it.

 

11. Saõkavàsuttaü Ý In Sankava

92. At one time the Blessed One was touring the country of Kosala with a large Community of bhikkhus and entered the hamlet Sankava in Kosala and lived there.

At that time a bhikkhu named Kassapagotta lived in Sankava, the Blessed One was advising, insighting and gladening the bhikkhus on the arrangement of precepts. The bhikkhu Kassapagotta was displeased and discontented hearing the teaching on the arrangement of precepts given to the bhikkhus, thinking I am also a recluse practising the higher austerities.

The Blessed One living in Sankava as long as he pleased, left for Rajagaha and coming to Rajagaha lived among the Gijjha peaks.

Soon after the Blessed One had gone away the bhikkhu Kassapagotta became remorseful and regretful It is no gain for me, I have lost much, for I was displeased and discontented hearing the advise, incite and gladness given to the bhikkhus in arranging precepts, thinking I was also a recluse practising the higher austerities. What if I approach the Blessed One to wherever he is and ask pardon for my offence?

The bhikkhu Kassapagotta arranged his dwelling, took his bowl and robes and went to Rajagaha and eventually came to the presence of the Blessed One among the Gijjha peaks. He worshipped the Blessed One sat on a side and said:

Venerable sir, at one time the Blessed One was living in Sankva, a hamlet of Kosala the Blessed One was advising, inciting and gladening the bhikkhus on the arrangement of precepts. Then I was displeased and discontented hearing the teaching on the arrangement of precepts given to the bhikkhus, thinking I am also a recluse practising the higher austerities.

The Blessed One lived in Sankava as long as he pleased, left for Rajagaha and coming to Rajagaha lived among the Gijjha peaks.

Soon after the Blessed One had gone away I became remorseful and regretful It is no gain for me, I have lost much, for I was displeased and discontented hearing the advise, incite and gladness given to the bhikkhus in arranging precepts, thinking I was also a recluse practising the higher austerities. Then the thought occured to me. What if I approached the Blessed One to wherever he is and ask pardon for my offence. May the Blessed One pardon my offence, it was demerit done owing foolishness and delusion, may it be for future restraint.

There Kassapa, you have done an offence, it's demerit done owing to foolishness and delusion that you were displeased and discontented hearing the teaching on the arrangement of precepts given to the bhikkhus, thinking I am also a recluse practising the higher austerities. Kassapa, since you ask for pardon seeing your fault according to the Teaching, we pardon you, it is for future restraint.

Kassapa, there may be an elder bhikkhu who does not like the training and does not talk in praise of the training and not inciting other bhikkhus to like the training and to observe it. He would not praise truthfully other bhikkhus who like the training carefully watching as time goes. Kassapa, I do not talk praise of even such an elder bhikkhu. What is the reason? Hearing the Teacher praise him other bhikkhus copy him, and imitating him fall into unpleasantness for a long time. Therefore Kassapa, I do not talk in praise of such an elder bhikkhu.

Kassapa, there may be a middling bhikkhu ... re ... a novice bhikkhu who does not like the training and does not talk in praise of the training and not inciting other bhikkhus to like the training and to observe it. He would not praise truthfully other bhikkhus who like the training carefully watching as time goes. Kassapa, I do not talk praise of even such a novice bhikkhu. What is the reason? Hearing the Teacher praise him other bhikkhus copy him, and imitating him fall into unpleasantness for a long time. Therefore Kassapa, I do not talk in praise of such a novice bhikkhu.

Kassapa, there may be an elder bhikkhu who likes the training and talks in praise of the training and inciting other bhikkhus to like the training and to observe it. He would praise truthfully other bhikkhus who like the training carefully watching as time goes. Kassapa, I talk praise of such an elder bhikkhu. What is the reason? Hearing the Teacher praise him other bhikkhus copy him, and imitating him come to welfare and pleasantness for a long time. Therefore Kassapa, I talk in praise of such an elder bhikkhu.

Kassapa, there may be a middling bhikkhu ... re ... a novice bhikkhu who likes the training and talks in praise of the training inciting other bhikkhus to like the training and to observe it. He would praise truthfully other bhikkhus who like the training carefully watching as time goes. Kassapa, I talk praise of such a novice bhikkhu. What is the reason? Hearing the Teacher praise him other bhikkhus copy him, and imitating him fall into pleasantness and welfare for a long time. Therefore Kassapa, I talk in praise of such a novice bhikkh.