CHAPTER II
ON BEHAVIOUR

(1)* Sloth and Energy (a)

If, brethren, there arise in the mind of a brother either a sensual thought, an angry thought or a cruel thought, and if the brother yields to such (thought), does not reject or expel it, nor frees himself from it, nor causes it to perish, then, brethren, such a brother, walking, standing or sitting, who is always inactive and devoid of zeal, is said to be an indolent and slothful person. If, brethren, there arise in (the mind of) a brother, who is lying down but awake, either a sensual thought, an angry thought or a cruel thought, and if the brother yields to such (thought), does not reject or expel it, nor frees himself from it, nor causes it to perish, then such a brother, lying down but awake, who is always inactive and devoid of zeal, is said to be an indolent and slothful person.

If brethren, there arise in (the mind of) a brother either a sensual, an angry thought or a cruel thought, and if the brother yields not to such (thought) but rejects, expels or frees himself from it or causes it to perish, then, brethren,

Cf. Itivuttaka, 115.

11. (2 ) On Behaviour 17

such a brother, walking, standing or sitting, who is always active and zealous, is said to be a person strenuous and resolute (in meditation). If, brethren, there arises in (the mind of) a brother, lying down but awake, a sensual thought, an angry thought or a cruel thought, and if the brother yields not to such (thought) but rejects, expels or frees himself from it, or causes it to perish, then, brethren, such a brother, lying down but awake, who is always active and zealous, is said to be an active person, strenuous and resolute (in meditation).

Whether he walk or stand or sit or lie,
Whoso thinks thoughts of ill or worldly things,'
He, gone astray* and by delusion blinded,
Can never reach Supreme Enlightenment.
Whether he walk or stand or sit or lie,
Whose, controlling thought, doth take delight
In ceasing from all thought, that brother sure
Is fit to win Supreme Enlightenment.

(2) Sloth and Energy (b)

Brethren, lead ye a life of virtue, be endowed with the restraint of the Pàtimokkha' discipline, observe good

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1 Gehtanissita (connected with house-hold life).

2 Kummagga-patipanna (gone on the wrong non-Ariyan path)

3 Fortniightly confession of faults among the assembled members of the order.

18 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 14]

manners and proper behaviour also fearing even venial sins conduct yourselves in accordance with the precepts. To you, brethren, who lead a virtuous life, endowed with the restraint of the Pàtimokkha discipline, observing good manners and proper behaviour, and, fearing even venial sins, conduct yourselves in accordance with the precepts, what thing more excellent remains to be done?

Brethren, a brother, walking, standing, sitting or lying, is freed from covetousness and ill-will, has banished sloth and torpor, distraction and flurry, maintains his energy unabated, has established mindfulness, is light of body and well-composed and his mind is tranquillised and concentrated.'

Brethren, such a brother, whether walking, standing, sitting or lying, who is always active and zealous, is said to be a person strenuous and resolute (in meditation). Brethren, a brother, even when he is lying down but awake, who is always active and zealous, is said to be a person strenuous and resolute (in meditation).

Whether he walk or stand or sit or lie,
Or stretch his limbs or draw them in again,
A brother should do all composedly.
Above, across and back again returningÞ
Whichever way one turns in all the world,'

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1 Cf. itivuttaka, p. 120.

2 Apàcinani, (turned away from the East), a synonym here for adho.

3 Yàvatà jagato gati, not here in the sense of rebirth. Comy. lokassa nipphatti.

11. [13] On Behaviour 19

Let him be one who views the Rise and Fall'
Of all compounded things attentively.
Calm-minded in self-training, `Ever Intent'-
Thus do they call a brother, so composed.

(3) Exertions (a)

Brethren, there are these four proper Exertions. Which four? Brethren, here. (in the world) a brother begets a desire, exerts himself, puts forth endeavour and strenuously applies his mind to prevent the arising of sinful conditions not yet. arisen, to put away sinful conditions that have arisen, to produce meritorious conditions that have not yet arisen, and to promote, increase, preserve, develop* and perfect meritorious conditions that have arisen. These, brethren, are the four proper Exertions.

By proper effort conquering Death's realm,
Freed from the fear of birth and death, the Saints
Have passed beyond the world. They are content.
Stainless ihey've conquered Màra and his host
O'ercoming all Namåci's might they are in bliss.

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1 Udaya-bbayam.

2 Bhàvanà, here means' to produce' or' develop'..

3 Pàragå.

4 A name for Mara. Namåncati (does not let one go)'says Comy. on Saüyutta, V. i.

20 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT ii, 16

4. Exertions (b)

Brethren, there are these four Exertions. Which four? The Exertion to control, the Exertion to put away, the Exertion to develop and the Exertion to preserve.

Brethren, what is the Exertion to control? Here (in the world) a brother seeing a bodily form is not entranced by the general appearance or the details of it. Because, in him who dwells with the eye uncontrolled, sinful conditions of covetousness or discontent may come into being, therefore he watches, guards and brings the eye into subjection. Hearing a sound with the ear, smelling an odour with the nose, feeling a taste with the tongue or a contact with the body, or thinking a thought with the mind, he is not entranced by the general qualities or the details of it. Because, in him who dwells with the mind controlled, sinful conditions of covetousness or discontent may come into being, he watches, guards and brings the mind into subjection. Brethren, this is said to be the Exertion to control.

Brethren, what is the Exertion to put away? Here (in the world) a brother yields not to a sensual thought, an angry thought or a cruel thought that has arisen, but rejects, expels or frees himself from them or causes them to perish. Brethren, this is said to be the Exertion to put away.

Brethren, what is the Exertion to develop? Here (in the world) a brother develops the Factor of Knowledge (called) Recollection, which results in peace, passionlessness and cessation and leads to the extinction of lust. He also develops the Factors of Knowledge (called) Investigation, Energy, Serenity, Rapture, Concentration and Equanimity,'

1 The Seven Bojjhangas

ii. [14] On Behaviour 21

which result in peace, passionlessness and cessation, and also lead to the extinction of lust. Brethren, this is said to be the Exertion to develop.

Brethren, what is the Exertion to preserve? Here (in the world) a brother carefully guards the auspicious mental reflex of concentration' and meditates upon the ideas of a skeleton, a worm-infested corpse, a discoloured or festering corpse, a corpse with cracked skin, or a bloated corpse. This, brethren, is said to be the Exertion to preserve.

Restraint, Rejection, Practice, PreservationÞ
These be the Four Exertions taught by Him,
The kinsman of the Sun.* Herein a brother,
Ardently striving, makes an end of woe.

(5) Designations

Brethren, there are these four great Designations. Which four? Brethren, among those who have bodily forms Rahu the King of Asuras is chief. Among those addicted to sensual pleasures King Mandhàtà* is chief. Among those endowed with power Mora the Sinful is chief. Brethren, in the world of the gods, Màras, Bràhmas, also among all beings whether recluses, bràhmins, devas or men, the

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1 Bhaddakam samàdhi-nimitta (i.e., with mind fixed on what is for his profit, with the lovely for his -mark).

2 Adiccà-bandhu. The Buddha was a kinsman of the Solar Race.

3 Jat., II, 310; Milinda 115-Cf. Therigàthà 485-'Lord of the four continents,.' A personification of the passional nature.

22 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT II, 17

Tathàgata, Arahant, Buddha Supreme is chief. Brethren, these are the four great Designations.

Rahu is chief of those who have a body:
Mandhàtà rules those given to delights:
Màra is lord of those endowed with power;
With wondrous glory doth he ever shine.
Above, across, and back again returning,
Whichever way one turns in all the world,
The Buddha is proclaimed the Chief of gods and men.

(6) Subtilties

Brethren, there are these four Subtilties.* Which four? Herein, a brother is endowed with the subtilty of the body, the sensations, the perceptions and the dispositions. Thus owing to his Subtilty of the body, the sensations, the perceptions and the dispositions, he neither seeks nor aims at any higher or more excellent form of Subtilty of the body, the sensations, the perceptions or the dispositions. These, brethren, are the four Subtilties.

Knowing the wondrous subtilty of forms,
And how sensations come to have a being,
1 Sokhumma: Skt. Sauksmya-fineness, extreme minuteness.

11, [17] On Behaviour 23

And how perception, rising, disappears,
And how the dispositions are but change,
All sorrow-fraught and void of an self-
A brother who sees rightly in all this,
And in the everlasting Peace delights,
Weareth his last, last body in the world,
For he hath conquered Màra and his mount.'

(7) Wrong Behaviour

Brethren, there are the these four (kinds of) wrongful behaviour. Which four? One falls into wrong behaviour owing to Desire, Ill-will, Illusion or Fear.

Desire, Ill-will, Illusion, Fearfulness
Whoso, by these misled, doth break the Law,
His good name fades away, as wanes the moon
In the dark fortnight of its perishing.'

(8) Right Behaviour

Brethren, there are these four (kinds of) right behaviour.

Which four? One falls not into wrong behaviour owing to Desire, Ill-will, Illusion or Fear..

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1 Màra rides an elephant into battle.

2 Chando, doso, moho, bhayam.

3 From Sigalovoda Sutta. D. N. iii 182.

24 The Numerical Sayings [TEXT 11, 19

Desire, Ill-will, Illusion, Fearfulnss-
Whoso, by these misled, breaks not the Law,
His good name waxes, even as the moon
In the bright fortnight cometh to the full.

[Sutta (9) with gàthàs is the same as the Suttas (7) and (8) above.]

(10) Distribution of Food

Brethren, he who regulates the distribution of food, surely as a load,* falls into Purgatory owing to four things. Owing to which, four? He does wrong' owing to Desire, Ill-will, illusion or Fear. Brethren, he who regulates the distribution of food is thus re-born in heaven, even as a load is laid down, if he does no wrong owing to Desire, Ill will, Illusion or Fear.

Whatever folk are unrestrained in their lusts,
Unrighteous ones with no respect for righteousness,
Led by desire, ill-will and fear they go about.
`A blemish to the company* is such an one.'
Thus was it spoken by the Samana* who knows.

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1 Yathàbhatam nikkito. Itiv., 12 , 26 (like a load laid down), the idea is `falls plumb' or goes straight'. `Here we have a parable of the Unjust Steward. For bhattuddesako see Jat i. 5.

2 Parisa-kkasàvo.

3 P.T. S. reads Samano na jàntà for Samaõena jànatà.

11. [20] On Behaviour 25

Wherefore good men are they and worthy of all praise,
Who `stablished in the Norm commit no evil deed.
Who live not subject to desire, ill-will and fear.
`A credit to the company* is such an one'.

Thus was it spoken by the Samana who knows.

(CHAPTER II CARA-VAGGA ENDS)

Parisàya mando.